#039 9 Signs You May Have Vitamin K2 Deficiency

9 Signs You May Have Vitamin K2 Deficiency

You may have a vitamin K2 deficiency.  Sadly, few people have even heard about this vitamin.  In this article, I share the nine signs of vitamin K2 deficiency and what you can do now to reverse a vitamin K2 deficiency.

What is vitamin K1?

Most people have heard of vitamin K.  This is vitamin K1.  Vitamin K1 is important for blood clotting.  Vitamin K1 comes primarily from green leafy vegetables.

How much vitamin K1 do you need?

Many experts feel that the current recommended dose of vitamin K1 is too low to prevent disease.  The current government recommendations are for just 90 mcg of vitamin K per day.  To put this in perspective, you can easily get 10 times the amount of vitamin K the government recommends from just one cup of cooked kale or spinach.

What is vitamin K2?

Vitamin K2 is different than K1.  The main role of vitamin K2 is to put calcium where it belongs in the body, like your teeth and bones, and keep it out of your brain, heart, and other places where it can cause premature aging and an early death.

Do you need to worry about getting enough vitamin K2?

Historically, it was felt that you did not need to worry about a vitamin K2 deficiency.  The reasoning was that your body would make all the vitamin K2 it needed from vitamin K1.

New research suggests this may not be the case.  Most people eating a Western diet are deficient not only in vitamin K1 but K2 as well.

Unfortunately, there not a good test to see if your have a vitamin K2 deficiency.  There are also no government recommendations on how much vitamin K2 you need.  To help assess for a possible vitamin K2 deficiency, below are nine signs that you may have a vitamin K2 deficiency.

9 Signs You May Have Vitamin K2 Deficiency

1. You bruise or bleed easily.

Vitamin K was named “K” after the German word “Koagulation” or clotting.  If you are deficient in vitamin K1, you will bruise or bleed easily.

As much of the vitamin K2 in your body comes from the body’s conversion of vitamin K1 to K2, if you have a vitamin K1 deficiency you will also have a vitamin K2 deficiency.  To ensure enough vitamin K2 for your body, make sure you eat a large serving of green leafy vegetables every day.  Kale, spinach, or broccoli are all excellent choices.

2. You have osteoporosis or broken bones.

Many studies have linked low K vitamins to a higher risk of low bone mass, osteoporosis, or fractures.  Vitamin K2 is especially important for normal osteocalcin function. Osteocalcin is a protein critical for healthy bones.

As vitamin K2 is critical for good bone health, this could explain why the Japanese and Chinese have much lower rates of osteoporosis or fractures even though few eat calcium-rich dairy.  Indeed, the Japanese and Chinese both eat diets very high in green leafy vegetables and fermented soy, such as natto, which has the highest known levels of vitamin K2 of any food.

3. Your mouth is full of cavities.

Vitamin K2, through its effects on osteocalcin, not only strengthens your bones but your teeth as well. In our research of Chinese centenarians, one study of rural Chinese centenarians showed that centenarians eating a diet high in the K vitamins, without any processed carbohydrates, were able to keep all of their teeth at age 100 despite never brushing.

4. You have heart disease.

Vitamin K2 may be one of the most overlooked strategies to decrease your risk of heart disease.  Based on the Rotterdam Study of 4,807 people, those with the highest dietary intake of vitamin K2 had a 57% lower risk of heart disease.

5. You have diabetes or pre-diabetes.

Through complex mechanisms, vitamin K plays an important role in regulating glucose.  Indeed, getting enough of the K vitamins can cut your diabetes risk by 51%.

6. You have an autoimmune disease.

The K vitamins may also play a role in autoimmune diseases.  One study showed that vitamin K2 may not only prevent osteoporosis in people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, but that it may also help to put rheumatoid arthritis into remission.

7. You are becoming forgetful.

A low vitamin K diet is linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease.  This may be due to calcium plaque build up in the brain from a vitamin K2 deficiency.

8. You have taken a lot of antibiotics.

Antibiotics not only kill the bad bacteria but your healthy gut bacteria as well.  If you have recently been on antibiotics, probiotics and fermented foods may help you to restore the beneficial vitamin K producing gut bacteria.

9. You take Coumadin (warfarin)

While Coumadin (warfarin) is very effective at preventing blood clots, it can also cause a vitamin K2 deficiency.  This medicine works by blocking vitamin K.

If your doctor has prescribed this medication, it is still important to eat green leafy vegetables for optimal health.  In order to do so, you will have to work very closely with your healthcare provider.  If you eat the exact same amount of vitamin K in your diet each day, then your health care provider can dose your Coumadin (warfarin) appropriately.

How do you get enough vitamin K2?

The very best way to prevent a vitamin K2 deficiency, is to eat a large serving of green leafy vegetables every day.  Green leafy vegetables are sky high in vitamin K1.  Your body will then convert vitamin K1 to vitamin K2.

Fermented foods, like fermented soybeans, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, such as brie or gouda, can all be good sources of vitamin K2.  Even though yogurt and kefir are also fermented foods, the grocery store variety contains the wrong bacteria for vitamin K2.

Other good sources of vitamin K2 include liver and grass fed chicken eggs.  Of all these sources, nothing even comes close to the amount of vitamin K2 found in natto or fermented soybeans.

Indeed, one serving of natto has enough vitamin K2 for an entire week. Not only is natto loaded with vitamin K2, but this fermented food may also help your gut flora.

Natto is a delicacy in Japan.  Unfortunately, most Westerners cannot tolerate the taste.

While natto certainly isn’t my favorite food, I have learned to tolerate it.  I have eaten a spoonful of fresh natto everyday for the last few years.  You can find fresh natto at your local Asian food store.

Can you get too much vitamin K?

Fortunately, I could find no reported cases of vitamin K toxicity from eating too many green leafy vegetables.  Unlike other fat soluble vitamins, very little vitamin K is stored.  Thus, vitamin K toxicity from food isn’t known to develop.  On the other hand, it is always possible to overdose on vitamin K from supplements.

Ongoing Vitamin K2 Studies

I have recently learned of a study being done in the Netherlands to test the effect of vitamin K2 in reversing heart disease.  This study will be the first high quality study to be done on this important vitamin.

Hopefully, vitamin K2 will be shown to reverse coronary calcification or plaque build up in the arteries of the heart.  Any reversal of heart disease will be measured very accurately by CT scans.

This study is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.  Until that time, I will continue to “enjoy” my spoonful of fresh natto each morning.

Take Home Message

The key message of this article is that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 deficiency is common in the Western world.  This is a very preventable condition.

To prevent or reverse a vitamin K2 deficiency, make sure you have a heaping serving of green leafy vegetables every day.  Also, some fermented foods and grass fed dairy may also help you to get enough vitamin K2 in your diet.

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Disclaimer Policy: This website is intended to give general information and does not provide medical advice. This website does not create a doctor-patient relationship between you and Dr. John Day. If you have a medical problem, immediately contact your healthcare provider. Information on this website is not intended to diagnose or treat any condition. Dr. John Day is not responsible for any losses, damages or claims that may result from your medical decisions.

  1. Hi Dr. Day,

    I am a 45 year old male. I take one 81 mg aspirin and 25 mg of metoprolol daily for atrial tachycardia. I am also in the early stages of CAD. I recently scored 45 on my calcium scan. My Dr. is now recommending a low dose statin, but I would like to hold off on that if possible due to the side effects. I have read about the benefits of K2-MK7 and would like to give it a try. I have also read that it will not interfere with aspirin but i was hoping you could confirm that. Thanks for your help and have a nice Holiday weekend.


    • Hi Tom,

      Great questions. Sadly, very little quality research has been done K2 supplements. Thus, we really don’t know the long-term benefits or risks of K2 supplements. As I personally worry about the long term effects of anything I put in my body, I try to maximize my K1 (heaping portions of green vegetables every day) and K2 (a tablespoon of natto every day) from natural food sources.

      Hope this helps!


  2. This is very useful and excellent information – thank you very much for sharing. I have osteoporosis also bruise easily and bleed easily. I just put it down to old age, but now I am going to up UP my intake of green veg and look for Natto, as you never see Netto in any supermarket.

  3. Sir, please check the South Indian food called Uttapam, it is made from fermented rice, I have personally tasted Uttapam and it is agood source of vitamin k2.

  4. Hi Dr. Day,

    Thank you for this great article! I tend to bruise easily so based on your article I am probably deficient in K1 and K2. In the past I used to take K2 supplements but haven’t in years. Just wondering if I need to take both K1 and K2 or just K2. Also, is there a brand you would recommend or take yourself? Have you heard of Dr. Mercola’s brand which includes calcium, D3, and K2.

    I look forward to your response!


    • Hi Liz,

      Like pharmaceutical drugs, supplements scare me as well. There is no control over the manufacturing process. Also, we really don’t know how supplements affect the body.

      In my opinion, supplement should be just that. A supplement to something that you can’t get any other way.

      For most people, a heaping salad everyday will get them all the K1 and K2 they need. If you want to make sure there is enough K2, then focus on K2 foods. This is why I have a huge salad and a big spoonful of natto every day.

      Hope this helps!


  5. Hi,

    I’m wondering about whether or not elevated calcium levels on blood tests could be a potential indicator of K2 deficiency. Have any studies been done around this?

  6. Dr Day- I loved your article on K1 & K2, we take Nattokinase that has the K2 removed. We use Nattokinase to keep our blood thin and healthy as my husband has an aortic valve stenosis which is being monitored by his cardiologist, will having nutrition with K2 in it negate the health of our blood and his aortic valve?.
    We have also been advised to avoid calcium supplements- is there a connection between eating fermented cheese and calcium? I am a wee bit confused.
    Thanking you in anticipation

    • Hi Pam,

      Thanks for reading! You are correct, nattokinase does “thin” the blood. However, this has not been adequately studied to treat heart conditions, thus it can’t be recommended at this time to treat heart conditions.

      Certainly, nattokinase, in addition to traditional blood thinners, can certainly increase bleeding risks with unclear benefit, if any.

      Calcium supplements have been linked to heart issues (primarily coronary artery disease) now in many studies. These studies don’t prove that calcium causes heart attacks…all they show is that people who take calcium supplements are at increased risk of a heart attack for unclear reasons.

      I am not aware of any studies linking calcium in the diet to heart attacks. If anything, every study I have come across shows that calcium in the diet is protective. Cheese is high in calcium.

      Hope this helps!


  7. I think I may be deficient in this vitamin , I’m about to start taking pro greens would that go towards the green leafy veg a day?
    Thaks Jo carter

    • Hi Jo,

      I am always leery of any supplement as you never really know what you are taking into your body. Most people will get all the K2 they need from a big serving of green leafy veggies every day.

      Hope this helps!


  8. Lately, I have been having to take a lot of antibiotics due to multiple sicknesses. However, I had no idea that that was a sign of being vitamin k2 deficient. Now that I know that this might be the case, I’m going to start eating more eggs. I’m also going to go to the doctor and see if he can have me tested for this deficiency as well.

    • Hi Faylinn,

      Antibiotics wipe out both the good and bad bacteria…Studies show that the best way to build up your good bacteria in your gut after antibiotics is with probiotics and fiber (check with your doctor first before taking probiotics or increasing the fiber in your diet).

      Eggs have not been shown to help build up the good bacteria. Having a healthy gut flora may help in regulating your vitamin K metabolism.

      Hope this helps!


  9. We eat or juice 5 to 6 tines a week a minimum of 1 cup of spinach,chard and kale. Also 2 or more times we eat brocolli. Plus lots if other leaves and green vegetables. Yet my husband of 82 years , in l
    The last 5 years bruises extremely easily, bleeds easily and soars take a long time to heal.

  10. I am waiting for info on the typical content levek of K2 in order to ‘fit’ it into my own programme to monitor nutrient health (mine) but waitibg fir the usda to put out the info.
    Do you know any source at present which can give some guide on any food content?
    My other point is that here in UK at least I am wary of hormone and antibiotic meats from largely grain fed animals which means means its much harder to balance omega three and six, being as nationally we are around 10:1 ratio of omegas six to three when we really need to be around 2:1 of omegas three to six. So apart from lambs liver (kinda nearest to organic) meat is not a good option in my opinion.
    Be grateful for the content info if you have, or know a source.
    Best regards
    Chris Wiseman

    • Hi Chris,

      Great questions. Probably the very best way to get vitamin K2 is my eating vegetables high in vitamin K1 (unless your doctor has told you to avoid vitamin K1 foods due to interactions with blood thinners, etc.). For example, kale, broccoli, and spinach are also excellent choices. Your body will covert a lot of this to K2.

      As far as food sources for K2, there is a good summary of the medical literature on the Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K2#Rheaume-Bleue

      I agree, omega 3 is very important and something that is lacking in most diets. Grass fed meat and dairy has more omega 3.

      Hope this helps!


  11. I was at the doctor yesterday and he said they could not do a proper reading on my arteries because of Calcium build up he said the blood flowed through ok but the scan could not see through because or the Calcium. So do I take vitamin K2 to dislodge the calcium ? Everything else in my tests was perfect. I eat a balanced diet as it is. So how do I remove the Calcium ?

    • Hi Robert,

      You raise an excellent question. Unfortunately, taking vitamin K2 to reverse coronary calcium has never been studied in a rigorous manner. Thus, it is unknown when a K2 supplement will help or hurt this situation.

      What we do know is that studies have shown that filling your plate with mostly vegetables, avoiding unhealthy foods, daily exercise, management of unhealthy stress, proper sleep at night, etc. can reverse plaque build up in the heart.

      Hope this helps!


  12. Just a warning to hormone positive breast cancer patients/survivors being to supplement K2. Natto is usually made from fermented soybeans, which we all know to have estrogenic effects. However, the natto made from fermented garbonzo beans a also has estrogenic effects. Basically ALL K2 has estrogenic effects as part of its main function and there is no avoiding it. I would highly recommend anyone who’s had hormone positive breast cancer to check with your oncologist prior to supplementing! I’m not even sure yet how much effect natural sources of K1, to convert to K2, has on estrogen levels. This is my next step. Good luck out there!

    • Hi Angie,

      A great point. Anyone wishing to supplement with anything should check with their physician first. However, I should also point out that while soybeans are very controversial in the US, in Asia soybeans are consistently associated with lower rates of breast cancer, heart disease, etc. I suspect this is because they typically eat the entire bean rather than processed isolates like we do in the US. Also, as these are observational studies, there could be other protective aspects of their lifestyle.



  13. I have a poor diet……too lazy to cook veg. every day so I was thinking of taking a supplement. What is the recommended dose?

    • Hi Avril,

      Great question. Unfortunately, taking vitamin K1/K2 supplements have never been shown to help. Your best bet is eating real foods.

      Probably the easiest way to get K1/K2 without cooking would be to have a heaping salad everyday. As long as your salad contains lots of greens, you will get more than enough K1. The body will then convert some of the K1 to K2.

      Hope this helps!


  14. Thank you. I feel more “secure” in my K2 level – I usually have a salad with every meal. However, this has been true for only 5 years. How quickly do levels change?

    • Hi Greg,

      As you are eating a salad with every meal, your K1 and K2 levels are likely right where they need to be (assuming you don’t have a malabsorption issue, take antibiotics daily, etc).

      Levels should remain fairly constant unless something changes like a malabsorption issues, course of antibiotics, etc.

      Hope this helps!


  15. I have a history of PEs and DVTs and have two heart stents. I have been on 4 mg. of warfarin for two years. I also have severe osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. I recently started taking a 100 mcg. K2 supplement once a day. I did this because I cannot keep a consistent supply of foods high in vitamin K which I understand is the key to a stable INR. I’ve read many journal articles regarding vitamin K2 and warfarin. I printed some of them and gave them to my doctors and they gave the OK at my own risk, of course. My blood is drawn every week to check my INR. This week will be the first time I’ve had my blood checked since being on vitamin K2. What are your thoughts on vitamin K2 and warfarin? Thank you very much.

    • Hi Virginia,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. Vitamin K1/K2 foods and warfarin are tricky. Fortunately you have the blessing of your physician and are having your INR monitored very closely.

      I share the same concern that blocking vitamin K with warfarin may have unintended consequences. Whether or not these unintended consequences can be prevented with vitamin K1/K2 foods has not been studied.

      You are charting new waters…Let me know how things go…



  16. I would like to be able to eat Natto but can’t stand the sliminess. I air dried some Natto and mixed it in with the peppercorns to grind on my food. Can anyone tell me if I am still getting the Benifits of K2 by using Natto in this way?

  17. For many years (about 20) I had intermittent Acilees tendinitis. I took a K2 supplement and within a week I could walk again normally.

  18. My recent blood tests have shown low vitamin D, and my doctor has recommended 3000IU of D3 per day (after 50000IU of D2 weekly for five weeks). Many articles have stated that K2 should be used in conjunction with D3 supplementation. Would there be any problem with eating two or three 3-oz containers of natto per week as the main K2 source? I presently eat 8-12 oz of tempeh per week, so I would just substitute the natto for tempeh. It’s more K2 than you recommend, but is there any downside?

    • Hi Ron,

      Great questions. Natto is a completely natural source of K2. The Japanese have long eaten natto with no apparent problems–only upside benefit.

      If you are going to eat that much K2 you should probably make sure your physician is aware.



  19. Dr. Day something I have experienced since I’ve been doing green shakes with fresh greens each morning for about a month now prior to that I had been advised I had a magnesium deficiency. I took a mag supp and I ended up with diarrhea two days later consistently but ever since I’ve been doing the green shakes i have been able to take a magnesium supp every day without any diarrhea. Thought it was an interesting note that I wanted to share with you since I hadn’t seen any research on that. Susan

    • I read many articles that say that there are different kinds of magnesium, and the one that causes diarrhea is magnesium oxide. Besides it is very poorly absorbed, only 4%, the rest would go to your intestines and cause diarrhea. All the articles I came across recommend MAGNESIUM CITRATE, more expensive but it is very well absorbed. You can check “magnesium citrate” in the Internet.Good luck.

      • Hi Alba,

        You are correct that magnesium comes in many different forms. People may also absorb one form better than another. All forms of magnesium can cause diarrhea.

        Sadly, there is not enough research in this area to know which form of magnesium is best. Here is a great summary from the National Institute of Health website on the different forms of magnesium with supporting scientific documentation.




        Magnesium supplements are available in a variety of forms, including magnesium oxide, citrate, and chloride [2,3]. The Supplement Facts panel on a dietary supplement label declares the amount of elemental magnesium in the product, not the weight of the entire magnesium-containing compound.

        Absorption of magnesium from different kinds of magnesium supplements varies. Forms of magnesium that dissolve well in liquid are more completely absorbed in the gut than less soluble forms [2,11]. Small studies have found that magnesium in the aspartate, citrate, lactate, and chloride forms is absorbed more completely and is more bioavailable than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate [11-15]. One study found that very high doses of zinc from supplements (142 mg/day) can interfere with magnesium absorption and disrupt the magnesium balance in the body [16].

    • Hi Susan,

      An interesting finding. Magnesium alone is well known to loosen stools.

      Thanks for reading and commenting!


  20. Hi. I have calcific tendonitis in my shoulder. I am going to see a surgeon in late August to discuss having arthroscopic surgery. Do you think vitamin k2 will help. I have tried so many things from physio, shockwave therapy to shark cartilage.

    • Hi Andrew,

      A great question. Theoretically, vitamin K2 could help. However, this has never been proven in a study that I am aware of.

      Hope this helps!


  21. Hello, I developed inflammation and deposits in my hands, feet and elbows after a vegan diet mainly consisting of nightshades. To all intents and purposes I have ‘rheumatoid arthritis’ though no doctor can diagnose it as the lumps appeared in my hands and feet spontaneously after eating most foods within minutes or half an hour. Is it likely a deficiency in K2 caused calcium to deposit on my small bones? If so how much per day should I take as a supplement? Will K2 be able to dissolve these hard nodules?

    • Hi Ava,

      Great questions! So sorry to hear about the lumps.

      Unfortunately, there are no data yet available to answer this question. The research on vitamin K2 is still in its infancy.

      I always like getting nutrients from food sources whenever possible. If you are interested in pursuing a supplement, please check with your physician first.

      Hope this helps!


  22. Dr. Day,

    I really enjoy your and Jane’s articles, recipes, and stories and words of inspiration. Keep them coming!

    I have worked hard to get off of all meds — was on a statin and a asthma puffer — now my cholesterol is 140 through exercise and diet and haven’t puffed in years. I read in a recent bestseller by a prominent oncologist that we should drop vitamins and supplements and get our nutrients and vitamins from from food — sounds like you. I was surprised, however, that in addition to a baby aspirin daily, he recommends taking a statin daily because of its anti-inflammatory qualities. As one of your patients, I wonder what your view is on this recommendation.

    Thanks. Darryl

    • Hi Darryl,

      Thank you so much for your kind words and for leaving your comments and questions! For those with established coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, or peripheral arterial disease (basically blockages in the arteries of the heart or other arteries in the body), the scientific data for statin and aspirin are very convincing. Where the controversy lies is whether or not these two medicines should be used in people without coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, or peripheral arterial disease. My personal opinion is that for 99% of the population, without these conditions, a healthy lifestyle may eliminate the need to take statins or aspirin. However, this is something that people should discuss with their physicians and, of course, no meds should be stopped without first consulting with your physician. As you know, a healthy lifestyle is incredibly “anti-inflammatory.”

      Hope this helps!


  23. Your articles are very helpful! Thank you for the weekly publications, etc. It is mentioned that the grocery store variety of yogurt contains the wrong kind of bacteria for vitamin K2. Are there yogurt varieties available with the good bacteria? Do you know where they might be found? Thank you!

    • Hi Jeri,

      Great question. I am not aware of where you can buy yogurt or kefir with K2. I have had readers who have let me know that they have made their own kefir with K2.



  24. Dr.Day, Thank you so much for this interesting article. It is both inspiring and educational. Excellent information for any age person. We are what we eat and do.

  25. Dr. Day– How much MK-7 (K2) is a good daily dose while taking 6,000 IU of D3 per day? I have been taking 99mg. I also take 450mg/day of calcium citrate because I don’t eat dairy, but do eat sardines or salmon and green leafy vegetables daily. I am a 73 yr old female with occasional, mild, short episodes of afib so have been supplementing with 400 mg/day of Nattokinase (K2 removed) for many years.
    Thank you very much for your help.


    • Hi Lorraine,

      You raise an excellent point. Getting enough vitamin K2 may be important for people supplementing with calcium and vitamin D.

      Unfortunately, we really have no solid scientific data to recommend a vitamin K2 supplement at this time.

      Supplements really should be supplements. In other words, something to supplement what you can’t get from your diet. Whenever possible, try to stick to natural food sources for your nutrients to minimize toxicity or unforeseen interactions.

      Hope this helps!


  26. Hi Dr Day,

    What’s your opinion about taking a K2 supplement along with leafy greens?



    • Hi George,

      Unfortunately, there are no compelling data to recommend a K2 supplement at this time. Leafy greens are great. Fermented foods and grass fed eggs, some dairy, and certain meats can help you with the rest. There is a great table of vitamin K2 containing foods on this Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K2.



  27. Thank you so very much! I enjoy reading your work and look forward to each post. Kris Hose

  28. Planning on buying Natto, (japanese dried beans) from amazon. Will i have to rehydrate to get same benefits? And coming from Japan, will it hold its integrity?

    • Hi Gail,

      This is a great question for which I am not 100% sure. I suspect that for vitamin K2 it is probably the same although I have not seen any research on this. However, the dried natto beans likely lack the probiotic component with natto. This is why I buy the fresh natto either from my local Asian food store or a local supplier. As natto is not my favorite food, I want to at least know that it is helping me with both vitamin K2 and probiotics.



  29. Does k2 also potentially effect carotid artery calcification in addition to the coronary arteries? I assume it would. I have several autoimmune diseases RA being one and on a biologic Enbrel. Also CLL probably as a result of the Enbrel though not sure. Recently went on a k supplement including k2 with my D. Putting spinach or kale in a fruit smoothie in AM but not tried Natto. Would sauerkraut be an OK substitute for Natto. Like the kraut not sure I want to eat soy. History of estrogen sensitive breast ca. ( 15 years post lumpectomy and radiation)

    • Hi Barb,

      The data on K2 is still in its infancy so we don’t have all the answers yet but it likely affects all arteries. Sauerkraut is a great fermented food. Much lower in K2 but many other health benefits.

      Hope this helps!


  30. I have recently been diagnosed with Fuch’s corneal endothelial dystrophy with no known familial history. My ophthalmologist, specialty in cornea and external disease of the eye, stated that he went to recent seminar. Apparently, due to the marked increase is Fuch’s dystrophy, they believe there may be a environmental influence. First, do you have an opinion on this and secondly can you suggest anything that may delay the process. I must tell you that I have gone organic in all that I eat and drink, at least everything is marked organic.

    • Hi Edmund,

      As you know, Fuchs’ dystrophy is an age related degenerative disorder to the cornea. As an age related condition, living in such a way to slow the aging process just might help this and any other age related condition.

      Hope this helps!


  31. I inadvertently caused my own K2 deficiency by taking calcium/biotin over the last five years. I also developed a D deficiency since I work in a windowless office and work a late shift where the sun don’t shine! LOL I just escaped from the hospital with a stent for a blockage (I refused the open heart.) Now I need to dissolve this plaque as quickly as possible. All my arteries have blockage ranging from 20 – 30% and two others with 70%. Unless I want bypasses I have to do something fast. I am a nutritional researcher and came across your article. Thank you so much for confirming what I have learned recently. I am taking the standard post-stent cocktail of drugs to prevent clots (Plavix, Metroprolol, Norvasc, and aspirin.) I have not found a nutritionally-knowledgable cardiologist yet, although my doctor is otherwise a conservative wonderfully skilled surgeon. That being said, I am on my own to figure out if I can supplement with a K2 product. My doc said I could keep taking the vitamins I’ve been on. He has never heard of K2 and can’t comment on it.

    • Hi Debbie,

      I am so sorry to hear about your struggles with coronary artery disease. The good news is that this can be reversed!

      While the data on vitamin K2 is still limited, there may be something here that will help you in your struggles. Personally, I eat at least one heaping salad loaded with lots of greens and a teaspoon of natto every day for my vitamin K2.

      Please review the many other articles I have in my archive about reducing cholesterol, blood pressure, etc. naturally.

      I wish you the best in your quest to reverse coronary artery disease! Please let me know how things go for you.



  32. What is the natto you take? I am willing to give it a try! Would this be better than the natto supplements, which removed the vitamin k?

    • Hi Jean,

      It is always best to get all of the micronutrients your body needs from real food sources whenever possible. Thus, each morning I have a teaspoon of natto. The taste was nasty at first but I have learned to tolerate this stuff.

      I buy my natto online from this site: http://www.meguminatto.com/order.html. I buy 10 cups of the MegumiNATTO and it lasts me 2-3 months. Please note that I do not have any financial relationships with this company…I have just ordered their product twice.

      Hope this helps!


      • Thanks so much! Everything else you have advised or do has worked so well for me that I am going to give this a try and give it to my husband as well:)

  33. DR. Day,

    I am enjoying this article very much, however I have a question.
    If one is taking warfarin due to a mechanical valve what should one do, not to create a Vitamin K problems for the valve?

    • Hi Debra,

      If you have a mechanical heart valve, at this time you have no choice but to take warfarin/Coumadin long-term. Hopefully in the future there will be other blood thinner options for people with mechanical heart valves. If you want to increase the green leafy vegetables in your diet (vitamin K) you will need to work very closely with the people managing your warfarin/Coumadin. As I don’t give any medical advice online, please continue to work with your doctor.

      Hope this helps!

      Dr. Day

      • Thanks for an interesting article. I have been taking K2 for a few years. Have you explored tumeric as a blood thinner?
        Thanks susie

        • Great point. Yes, turmeric also has blood thinning properties. These can be an issue if people are on pharmaceutical blood thinners or even if they are taking multiple natural blood thinners. As I don’t give any medical advice online, please continue to work with your doctor.