#140 How to Heal Your Gut in 5 Simple Steps

January 18th, 2016 by

How to Heal Your Gut

New research shows that having the wrong gut bacteria may cause weight gain, illnesses, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and problems with your heart.  Indeed, a study this past week showed that within 4 generations on a low fiber “modern diet” your beneficial gut microbes may become forever extinct.  In this article, I will share with you 5 simple things you can do to heal your gut and prevent chronic medical problems.

The Challenge

The number of bacterial cells in your gut out number the rest of the cells in your body by 10 to one.  The modern diet, low in fiber and high in sugar and saturated fat, wipes out healthy gut microbes.  Even worse, modern foods promote unhealthy strains of gut bacteria which may cause chronic medical conditions.

Weight Gain

Regardless of your willpower, you may never lose weight with the wrong gut bacteria in place.  Likewise, pre-diabetes and diabetes may also be caused by these same “bad” bacteria living in your gut.  To better understand the science of gut bacteria and weight gain, please read my previous blog.

Illnesses, Allergies, and Autoimmune Diseases

Do you seem to catch every cold going around?  Do you suffer from allergies?  Are you battling an autoimmune disease?  If so, your immune system challenges may be from the wrong gut bacteria.

Fully 70% of your entire immune system is in your gut.  What is happening to your gut’s immune system may also be affecting the rest of your body.

Cardiovascular Disease

In addition to weight gain and diabetes, new research shows that high cholesterol and heart disease may also be caused by the wrong gut bacteria.  Until recently, researchers were not sure how the bad gut bacteria caused heart attacks.

The link between bad gut bacteria and heart attacks may be due to TMAO.  TMAO, or Trimethylamine N-oxide, is a chemical produced by the wrong strains of gut bacteria.  TMAO in the blood may be a bigger risk for a heart attack than even high cholesterol.

People eating foods high in carnitine and lecithin produce a lot of TMAO.  Carnitine and lecithin are especially high in meat and eggs.  Red meat seems to be the biggest offender of TMAO creation by the gut bacteria.

Interestingly, studies show that people on antibiotics produce little TMAO.  Likewise, a vegan who suddenly eats a big steak also won’t produce much TMAO either.  However, if the vegan starts eating meat daily then their gut bacteria will start making large amounts of TMAO.  The bottom line is that if you eat a lot of meat and eggs on a daily basis, you will grow large amounts of the TMAO producing bacteria in your gut.

One puzzle to the TMAO theory of heart disease is fish.  While fish eaters have long been known to have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, fish eaters also have TMAO in their blood.  One theory to explain this conundrum is that the TMAO produced from fish is eliminated easily by the kidneys.

Are Good Gut Microbes Becoming Extinct?

A very sobering study on the gradual extinction of beneficial gut microbes was just published this past week by Drs. Erica D. Sonnenburg and Justin L. Sonnenburg from Stanford University.  It is well known that beneficial gut microbes thrive on fiber.  Fiber is their fuel source.  If fiber is not available, these healthy microbes die from starvation.

In their place will emerge strains of “bad” gut bacteria causing weight gain, poor immune system function, and heart disease.  These “bad guys” in your gut love the modern diet.  They especially love massive quantities of sugar, artificial sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, and saturated fats from animal products.

Although this Stanford study was done in mice, the findings may apply to you as well.  To study the effects of fiber on the human gut, they bred mice without any bacteria in their guts.  Next, they populated the guts of these germ free mice with healthy gut bacteria taken from humans through a procedure known as a fecal transplant.  In this case, they transplanted healthy “poop” from humans into the guts of these germ free mice.

With healthy human gut microbes in place, the Sonnenburgs then put these mice on a low fiber diet similar to what most Americans eat.  After several generations of mice, here is what they found:

1. A low fiber diet kills off beneficial gut microbes.

2. Healthy gut microbes gradually become extinct on a modern diet.

With each generation of mice on a Western diet, healthy strains of gut microbes became progressively extinct.  By the 4th generation, the mice had forever lost 75% of the beneficial strains of gut microbes.

3. A healthy diet alone can’t bring back healthy gut microbes.

While a high fiber diet allows the surviving beneficial gut microbes to multiply, a healthy diet alone could not bring back healthy gut microbes from extinction.

The finding that healthy strains of gut microbes can become extinct is a new scientific finding.  This finding has serious implications for the health of your children and grandchildren.  On a bigger scale, if healthy strains of gut microbes are forever lost from the human race, chronic medical conditions will afflict even more people.

Of course, it is possible that after thousands or possibly even millions of years your body may learn to adapt to a low fiber diet.  In the meantime, what can you do to prevent the extinction of healthy gut microbes from your family line?

Heal Your Gut in 5 Simple Steps

1. Eat a High Fiber Diet

While our ancestors once ate more than 100 grams of fiber daily, the average American now eats just 15 grams of fiber each day.  Even our government has set the bar very low by recommending just 14 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories you eat.  Thus, a person eating a 2,000 calorie diet only needs a mere 28 grams of fiber daily according to our government.

Since reading this article, I have tried to significantly increase my fiber intake.  Even while traveling most of last week, I still averaged 81.1 grams of fiber each day.  All of this fiber was from natural whole foods.  No supplements were taken.

To increase your fiber intake, eat more fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.  If you enjoy grains, make sure they are only whole grains which are high in fiber.

If you currently don’t eat much fiber, talk with your doctor first.  Suddenly switching from a low fiber diet to a high fiber diet could cause abdominal distress and possibly even an intestinal blockage.  You may need to gradually increase your fiber intake.

2. Eat More Fermented Foods

While fiber allows good bacteria to multiply, to introduce new healthy strains of gut bacteria you will need to eat more fermented foods.  Some examples of fermented foods include yogurt, kefir, natto, sauerkraut, kimchi, etc.  One ray of hope from the Stanford mouse study was that if researchers did a fecal transplant and fed the mice a high fiber diet they could restore a healthy gut.

Most of my patients are not willing to sign up for a fecal transplant.  Besides, a fecal transplant is still considered “experimental” and is only indicated to treat the most severe cases of C. diff colitis.

Thus, to introduce more healthy gut bacteria, eat more fermented foods. While I still don’t like fermented foods, I make it a point to eat them on most days.

If you have a weak immune system, talk with your doctor first to make sure it is safe to consume fermented foods.

3. Avoid Unnecessary Antibiotics

While antibiotics can be life-saving, most antibiotics currently used in the United States are unnecessary.  Unnecessary antibiotics in human and animals are breeding superbugs that can no longer be treated.

In addition to killing harmful bacteria, each course of antibiotics also wipes out billions of healthy gut microbes.  These healthy gut microbes may forever be eliminated from your gut and family line.

Work with your doctor to make sure any prescribed antibiotics are absolutely necessary.  Also, if you must take an antibiotic, be sure to quickly replenish your healthy gut microbes with plenty of fiber and fermented foods.

4. Give Your  Children Every Advantage

Many mothers have no choice but to undergo a C-section or feed their baby formula.  The beneficial gut microbes a baby starts this life with is determined, to a large extent, by a normal delivery and drinking mother’s milk.

As children grow older, do everything possible to encourage high fiber and fermented foods.  Work under the direction of your pediatrician as to when these healthy foods can be safely introduced.

Yes, children will fuss about eating healthy foods.  Don’t give up.  Starting off life with a healthy gut can help them to avoid weight gain, allergies, and future heart problems.

5. Don’t Live in Too Sterile of an Environment

Anti-bacterial soaps, toxic cleaners, hand sanitizers, and too much time spent inside may wreck havoc on your immune system and your gut.  Sadly, your contact with the microbial world is shrinking with each new generation.

It has long been recognized that farmers, children from big families, or people with pets suffer less from allergies and asthma.  Indeed, exposure to microbes in the dirt, microbes from a sick sibling, or microbes from a pet may help to fine tune your immune system.

These observations provide the basis for the hygiene hypothesis.  The hygiene hypothesis states that if your hygiene is too sterile then your immune system may not function properly.  If your immune system doesn’t get enough exposure to the microbial world then it could look for the wrong things to attack and cause conditions like allergies and autoimmune diseases.

The Big Picture

More and more studies are pointing to a healthy gut as one of the most important things you can do to maintain an ideal weight and prevent chronic medical problems.  The study by Erica and Justin Sonnenburg is a call to action now to prevent healthy gut microbes from forever becoming extinct in your family.

Please leave your experiences below on how you have healed your gut.  Also, if you have any questions about what you have just read, please leave your questions below.  I will do my best to answer every question.

#077 The Easiest Diet to Lose Weight: Focus on Fiber

February 20th, 2015 by

The Easiest Diet to Lose Weight: Focus on Fiber

Have you ever tried to drop a few pounds?  Did you struggle to follow a complex new way of eating?  If so, please read on as this article is just for you.

This is exactly the question researchers sought to answer in this new study that was just published in the prestigious Annals of Internal Medicine.  How well would just encouraging people to eat more fiber compare to the very rigid American Heart Association (AHA) Diet?

“Eat More Fiber” versus AHA Diet

In this study, researchers recruited 240 overweight people who also had diabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol and randomized them to either eat more fiber or follow the AHA Diet for 1 year.

“Eat More Fiber” Study Group

I should note that the “eat more fiber” group really did not eat that much fiber.  They were only encouraged to eat 30 grams of fiber each day which is the bare minimum amount of fiber that any adult should eat.

At the end of the study, the “eat more fiber” study group really did not do that good of a job.  They were only able to average a measly 23.5 grams of fiber daily which only represented a 4.7 gram improvement from what they were eating before the study started.

To put things into perspective, a 4.7 gram improvement in fiber is the equivalence of eating 1 more apple since an apple has about 5 grams of fiber. However, given that the average American only averages about 15 grams of fiber each day, 23.5 grams of fiber could be considered a significant accomplishment.

AHA Diet Study Group

In contrast, the AHA Diet was very strict.  Here is the AHA Diet as taken from the AHA website.

1. Eat fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains.

2. Eat lean meats, including fish at least twice weekly.

3. Eat fat-free or low-fat dairy products.

4. Cut back on partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reduce trans fat.

5. Keep saturated fat to no more than 5-6% of total calories.

6. Cut back on beverages and foods with added sugars.

7. Keep sodium less than 2,400 mg per day.

8. Drink alcohol in moderation.

Interestingly, by following this very complex AHA diet, study participants also increased their fiber intake.  However, on the AHA diet, people only increased their fiber intake by 1.3 grams per day to a total fiber average of 20.8 grams.  Thus, in comparison to the “eat more fiber” group, the AHA group ate about a half an apple less fiber each day.

Key Findings of the Eat More Fiber vs. AHA Diet Study

What happened after 1 year of following these diets?  I should note that study participants were not encouraged to exercise.  Thus, any changes were based only on the diet they were randomized to.  Here are the key findings:

1. The “Eat More Fiber” Diet was just as effective at weight loss as the complex AHA Diet.

2. 90% of the “Eat More Fiber” group could stick with their diet 1 year later.

3. The “Eat More Fiber” group lost 1 pound of body weight for each extra gram of fiber they averaged each day.

4. Eating 5 extra grams of fiber each day reduced daily calories by 200 per day.

These findings are really very interesting.  Adding just 5 more grams of fiber each day reduced caloric intake by 200 calories and resulted in a sustained weight loss that 90% of study participants could do.  This really has to be the easiest diet ever to follow.  However, the one thought that kept coming back into my mind was what would the results have been if the “eat more fiber” group really did eat more fiber?

Medical Benefits of a High Fiber Diet

A high fiber diet has additional benefits of lowering blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol.  In addition, fiber causes people to feel full and decreases the hunger hormones.

Despite these proven medical benefits of increased dietary fiber, these findings were not observed in this study.  I suspect that this was because study participants only increased their fiber intake by 5 grams each day.

The Traditional High Fiber Diet of China’s Longevity Village

The findings of this study are right in line with our research in China’s Longevity Village.  In this village, everything the villagers ate was high in fiber except the fish which they ate 1-2 times each week.

Villagers ate fruits and vegetables with every meal.  They also ate nuts, seeds, legumes, and whole grains every day.  All of these foods are extremely high in fiber and nothing was processed.  Sugar was just not a part of their diets.

After we returned back to the U.S. following our first visit to the Village, this was one of my guiding dietary principles as well.  I was overweight and all of the diets I had previously tried did not work for me.  Desiring to model my diet after those in the Village, I simply required that everything I ate be high in fiber with the exception of fish.

Almost overnight my daily fiber intake went from around 15 grams a day to an average of 70 grams of fiber each day.  Within just a few months my weight dropped 30 pounds without ever experiencing hunger from these changes.

To this day I still average 70 grams of fiber each day and I have easily kept the weight off for 3 years.  To track my daily dietary fiber intake I have used the app Lose It!

How to Increase Fiber in 6 Simple Steps

Here are my 6 simple tips to increase the fiber in your diet.  If you are not used to eating fiber you will need to gradually increase your fiber intake over time to avoid any gastric distress.

1. With the exception of fish, wild meats or eggs, try to make everything you eat be high in fiber.

2. I encourage my patients to get 9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day (20-25 grams of fiber).

3. I encourage my patients to get at least 1 serving of legumes each day (10-20 grams of fiber).

4. I encourage my patients to get at least 1 serving of nuts or seeds each day (2-7 grams of fiber).

5. Only eat real whole grains such as quinoa, brown rice, or coarse “flourless” wheat if you are not gluten sensitive, etc. (10-20 grams of fiber)

6. Track your fiber with an app like Lose It!


As with all of my articles, do not self diagnose or treat based on anything that you have read.  Always discuss health changes with your physician first.